Apologetics includes not only philosophical answers to questions, but also scientific answers to questions in defending one’s faith. When it comes to the beginning of the universe ultimately it takes faith to believe how it began because none of us alive today were there to witness the beginning of the universe. Enter the Fine-tuning of the Universe Argument:
- The fine-tuning of the universe is due to either physical necessity, chance, or design
- It is not due to physical necessity or chance
- Therefore, it is due to design
The sticking point for most people will be number 2 as some will believe that it is due to chance. But let’s look at that for a minute or so.
The Big Bang is the most prominent theory as to the beginning of the universe. Basically, the theory is that roughly 13.8 billion years ago the universe sprang into existence as a singularity and has been expanding and cooling ever since. Now I’m no scientist, so you’ll have to forgive my lack of in depth knowledge as to the specifics, but according to the model everything had a beginning. We don’t know what caused the singularity, there was no space before it, in fact there was nothing before the Big Bang.
Now there are different ways to interpret this data. And since no one alive today was actually there, it’s difficult to say with absolute surety that one way is the way. The way I interpret the data is that God created the universe. Genesis 1:1 says, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”
Now there is a fine-tunedness to our universe. Some will say that it was chance that our universe sprang into being, and that is is chance that our earth is in the right spot in the solar system, and that it’s chance that the various laws are the way they are. But the universe is fine tuned for life. And if any of these fine tuned numbers were off by just a little amount, there would be some significant problems for life. Here are just three examples, and remember these are the maximum deviation from the accepted values, meaning that if they deviated by those amounts we would have some issues.
- Gravitation constant – If this constant varied by just 1 in 1060 parts, none of us would exist.
- Cosmological Constant – If this rate varied by just 1 in 10120 parts, the expansion rate of the universe would either be too fast or too slow .
- Mass Density of the universe – If this rate varied by just 1 in 1059 parts, would either cause stars to burn too rapidly to form, or there would be insufficient helium creating a shortage of heavy elements.
The universe is so fined-tuned for existence it’s difficult to say that it was mere chance. Michael Turner, an Astrophysicist at the University of Chicago is famously quoted in regards to the fine-tunedness of the universe as saying, “The precision is as if one could throw a dart across the entire universe and hit a bulls eye one millimeter in diameter on the other side.”
The probability that this universe happened by mere chance is ridiculously remote. I believe the best explanation for the universe is that God created it.
“The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they reveal knowledge.” –Psalm 19:1-2
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